The Quebec government has made it illegal to protest within 50 metres of schools, daycares, hospitals, medical clinics, mobile clinics, COVID-19 vaccination sites and testing centres.
Law 105, tabled Thursday morning and passed that same evening, also makes it illegal to organize or "incite" someone to organize protests at those places.
People who protests or help organize them will be subject to fines of $1,000 to $6,000. Those fines double for anyone who "threatens or intimidates a person who is going to, trying to access or leaving" these types of facilities.
The law also allows Superior Court judge to grant an injunction to either prevent a protest from taking place or stop someone from organizing one.
The new law does not stop health-care workers or school staff from protesting conditions at their workplaces.
The Coalition Avenir Québec said the law is a response to recent anti-vaccine demonstrations outside schools and hospitals. It was tabled in a bill at the National Assembly by Geneviève Guilbault, the province's public security minister.
On Wednesday, Premier François Legault said the legislation was necessary, adding that his patience with protesters "had reached its limit."
He also urged opposition parties to support it so that it could be adopted quickly.
"We're taking action to protect our children, protect our nurses [and] protect our patients," the premier said on Thursday morning.
"What's important is that we adopt this today."
Fast-tracked into law
All parties agreed to fast-track the proposed bill. MNAs had few hours to study it and propose amendments.
"We're not against people demonstrating," said Dominique Anglade, the leader of the Quebec Liberal Party.
"We're against people intimidating and demonstrating in front of children and in locations that are dangerous for the people that are impacted."
Manon Massé, co-spokesperson of Québec Solidaire, said it's important to protect children and health-care workers while respecting people's right to protest.
"It's important for the law to bring measures that are exceptional, temporary and specific," Massé said.
When the bill was tabled, it included a provision that would make the legislation apply for as long as the province was in a public health emergency. The public health emergency was declared on March 13, 2020.
Law 105 goes further than existing provincial laws that prevent people from blocking access to schools, hospitals and clinics.
Quebec also banned protests within 50 metres of abortion clinics in 2016.
Human rights lawyer says bill violates charter
Before it passed, Montreal human rights lawyer Julius Grey said the proposed law is a violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Beyond that, it is unnecessary because there is already a prohibition on unlawful assembly, he said.
That means demonstrations could be stopped when they become violent, too loud, or contrary to municipal by-laws. Already, unions regularly hold demonstrations in front of hospitals and schools, he said.
"The right to demonstrate is a fundamental right. You can, of course, regulate it," Grey said.
Banning demonstrations within 10 metres of a door or from going after individual students would be more reasonable, but limiting protests to 50 metres away from schools, for example, appears to be an effort to stop the anti-vaccination message from reaching students, Grey said.
"I don't think it's the role of the government to block the message," said Grey.