Charles III is the new king, but who were Charles I and Charles II?
The reign of King Charles III has begun.
He became king immediately after the death of Queen Elizabeth II, who passed away at the age of 96 at Balmoral on Thursday.
It is the first time there has been a new monarch for 70 years and the first time there has been a king called Charles for more than three centuries.
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He shares a name with two previous kings – a father and son – who presided over one of the most turbulent periods in British history.
The reigns of Charles I and Charles II spanned 1625 to 1685 and saw the overthrow and restoration of the monarchy, the English Civil Wars, the Great Fire of London and the plague.
Who was Charles I?
Charles I remains one of the most notable British monarchs as he is the only one to have been publicly tried and executed for treason.
He was an unpopular king whose reign led to the temporary downfall of the monarchy and the establishment of an English republic before it was restored, 11 years later, under his son, Charles II.
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Born in November 1600, Charles I moved to England from Scotland when his father, King James VI of Scotland, inherited the English throne in 1603.
He became heir apparent when his brother, Henry Frederick Prince of Wales, died at the age of 18 in 1612.
Charles I married Henrietta Maria of France in 1625, the year he ascended to the throne, angering Protestant religious groups.
He also argued with parliament, which wanted to curb his powers, while many subjects opposed his policies which included levying taxes without parliamentary consent.
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His attempts to force the church of Scotland to adopt Anglican practices also led to religious conflicts, which in turn resulted in the strengthening of English and Scottish parliaments, helping to pave the way for his eventual downfall.
Charles I fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments but was defeated in 1645 and captured. After a brief period of escape, he was recaptured and executed in Whitehall in 1649 after being tried and convicted of high treason.
Who was Charles II?
Known as the "Merry Monarch", Charles II spent many years in exile, fathering a dozen illegitimate children by numerous mistresses.
His reign featured the plague and the Great Fire of London.
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Charles II was proclaimed king of Scotland upon the execution of his father in 1649, and attempted to reclaim England, but was defeated by Oliver Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester in 1651 before fleeing to mainland Europe where he spent nine years in exile.
During the Interregnum (meaning "between reigns"), from 1649 to 1660, England became a republic for 11 years.
Following Cromwell’s death in 1658 and the resignation of his son, Richard, as Lord Protector the following year, parliament proclaimed Charles II king and invited him to return to England in 1660.
Five years later, Charles II fled London for Salisbury as the plague hit London, killing thousands.
The following year, in 1666, Charles II and his brother James joined and directed the firefighting effort during the Great Fire of London.
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Charles had no legitimate children, but had 12 children by seven mistresses, leading to the nickname “Old Rowley”, the name of his favourite racehorse stallion.
The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles II, while Diana, Princess of Wales, was a descendent of two of Charles’s illegitimate sons – the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond.
This means that Diana and Charles III's eldest son, the Duke of Cornwall and Cambridge – who is now first in line to the throne – could become the first British monarch descended from Charles II.
Watch: A new monarch - the life and times of Charles III