The Dutch advanced to the round of 16 while the Qataris, who were already eliminated, became the first host to lose all three of its group matches at soccer's biggest event.
Cody Gakpo put the Netherlands ahead midway through the first half with his third goal in as many matches and Frenkie de Jong doubled the advantage five minutes into the second half.
The Netherlands is a three-time runner-up at the World Cup, and also finished third in 2014, while Qatar was making its tournament debut.
The Dutch failed to qualify for the 2018 World Cup.
Andrew Dampf is at https://twitter.com/AndrewDampf
Andrew Dampf, The Associated Press