A lab at the University of British Columbia is working on new drug-checking technology, including a device they say can identify lower concentrations of drug components.
Sara Guzman, a graduate student working at UBC's Hein Lab, is helping test a new, portable version of high-performance liquid chromatography instruments, or HPLCs, which she says can identify drug concentrations below five per cent.
"We are hoping to lower the barriers associated with this high-quality analytical technology and translate it into drug-checking," she said.
"It will increase sensitivity but also effectiveness and reduce human error."
The technology comes as B.C. is set to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of illegal drugs by the end of the month.
Drug-checking helps people understand what's in their drugs so they can make informed decisions.
The free, confidential service is done with the help of various technologies, and is typically offered in places such as safe consumption sites and music festivals.
The main technology being used to check drugs is an FT-IR spectroscopy, whose main limitation is being unable to properly detect concentrations under five per cent — which is often the case for opioids, Guzman says.
"Even an extremely small concentration of something like fentanyl can be lethal depending on one's tolerance," she said.
She adds that while the technician operating the device can make rough estimates, this can be subjective and lead to the wrong analysis.
The Hein Lab says it plans to eventually distribute the portable HPLCs for free to drug-checking sites and distributors working with clinics.
It aims to have the device ready for use by the end of April this year.
Decriminalization is not safe supply: experts
As of Jan. 31, people age 18 and older will be able to possess up to a cumulative 2.5 grams of opioids, cocaine, methamphetamine and MDMA within the province.
While harm reduction experts say it is too early to understand the full impacts of the policy, decriminalization does not mean there will be a safe supply of drugs.
Drug-checking is one type of harm-reduction service offered by regional health authorities, non-profits, and community-based organizations to try to curb the lethal consequences of toxic drugs.
Jennifer Matthews, a drug-checking implementation lead at the British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, told CBC that using a wide array of drug-checking technologies — including devices like the HPLC, FT-IR and test strips — is the best approach.
"The goal really is to try and pair technologies because every … strategy has its own limitations," she said.
"What we want to do is maximize the benefit of all of those to try and get the most complete picture that we can."
Jeremy Kalicum, co-founder of the Drug User Liberation Front, says the new technology is an important step in addressing the toxic crisis.
"A lot of these things [drug-checking technologies] have been put in place to respond to the overdose crisis when really they are just good practices in harm reduction," he said.
There is hope however that decriminalization will destigmatize the drug-checking process for those who don't get their drugs checked out of fear of criminal charges.
"Ultimately, what you want to make sure is that people feel comfortable in accessing whatever that service," said Kalicum.
"You aren't really able to overcome that without addressing the underlying systemic things."