Britain's Zharnel Hughes missed out on a 200m medal as Noah Lyles completed a sensational sprint double and Shericka Jackson won women's gold in Budapest.
Hughes was unable to add to his breakthrough world 100m bronze with a fourth-place finish in 20.02 seconds.
Erriyon Knighton ensured an American one-two behind Lyles, who won in 19.52, while Letsile Tebogo took bronze.
Jackson defended her 200m title with a dominant victory in 21.41secs - the second-fastest time in history.
Gabrielle Thomas and fellow American Sha'Carri Richardson, who beat Jackson to 100m gold, completed the podium.
British pair Daryll Neita, who ran a personal best 22.16, and Dina Asher-Smith finished fifth and seventh respectively.
Earlier, Britons Keely Hodgkinson and Jemma Reekie secured places in Sunday's women's 800m final with victories in their respective heats.
Lyles remains on course to end the championships with all three gold medals he set out to achieve, with the men's 4x100m relay podium to be settled on Saturday (20:40 BST).
"Not only is this me defending my title but it is number three - the three-peat," Lyles told BBC TV after retaining his 200m title.
"I put myself out of my comfort zone and I said I'd do it. I didn't back off.
"The 4x100m is about chemistry. With the US team this year, we've really put our egos aside and we want this win."
Lyles delivers to confirm status as global star
Lyles cemented his position as the world's top sprinter as he backed up Sunday's surprise 100m win with the gold many had already handed to him.
Victory took less than 20 seconds for the 26-year-old but the outcome had long seemed a formality.
Lyles flew off the bend and stormed clear to finish 0.23secs clear of rising star Knighton, the 19-year-old securing the silver he had likely expected to achieve behind his compatriot.
While he did not fulfil his pre-event prediction of breaking Usain Bolt's world record, Lyles emulated the Jamaican legend with the 100m-200m double, becoming the first man to win both sprint titles at the worlds since Bolt in 2015.
Hughes, unable to get close to the British record 19.73secs he ran at last month's London Diamond League, could not mount a serious challenge in the closing stages as Botswana's Tebogo added to his 100m silver.
But he will at least leave Budapest as the first British man to make a world 100m podium for 20 years, achieving his goal of earning a first global medal.
"I'm not that disappointed," said Hughes, who will also hope to win a relay medal on Saturday.
"I wanted to come out here and run my own race. I ran my best tonight but it wasn't good enough to get me on the podium.
"Next year is going to be special again. I'm putting it out there right now, losing to these guys tonight has made me a lot more determined to come back."
Jackson claims dominant win but Asher-Smith struggles
After being made to settle for a second successive world 100m silver earlier in the week, Jackson was not going to allow the 200m to escape her grasp.
The Jamaican, who won by 0.4secs, never appeared in danger of losing her title in a scintillating display.
"As an athlete you have to bounce back from what you call a disappointment," Jackson said.
"One of my main goals this season was to win both [200m and 100m] and it didn't happen.
"I just wanted to refocus and I think I did pretty good tonight. I am getting where I wanted to be."
Richardson appeared delighted with her bronze, which arrived four days after she had claimed her first global medal on her major championship debut.
Neita will also be pleased with her performance, recovering from the disappointment of missing out on the 100m final by setting two personal bests during the 200m competition.
"I feel absolutely amazing," said Neita. "I just ran a personal best in a championship final. I'm so happy.
"To have Shericka next to me - I've got that gauge now, I know how that feels.
"At the end of the race I said to her, 'How are you doing that?' - and she just laughed. I'll get there one day. I'll keep pushing."
However, there was further frustration for 2019 world champion Asher-Smith.
The 27-year-old was left puzzled by her underperformance in the 100m, finishing eighth. Despite feeling in "amazing shape" prior to the championships, she was once again unable to contend at the front of the race.
"Obviously I would have wished that these championships were very different for me," Asher-Smith said.
Reflecting on her week, she added: "I was going great [in the 100m semi-final] and then I just couldn't feel anything below my waist. I wasn't in pain - but neurally I didn't have any control.
"It was such a shame because I really was on the way to something quite good. It gave me quite a bit of self-confidence, how I was running going into it.
"I'm taking a lot from that and pushing into Paris that I can be very much on top of the podium."
Hodgkinson sets up golden opportunity
Hodgkinson will chase her first global title on Sunday (19:45 BST) after breezing through her semi-final.
The 21-year-old qualified comfortably in one minute 58.48 seconds but surged to the line as American Nia Akins attempted to pull alongside her in the closing stages.
The Olympic and world silver medallist is expected to battle fastest qualifier Mary Moraa (1:58.48) and reigning champion Athing Mu (1:58.78) in a tantalising showdown.
"I was really up for today," said Hodgkinson. "I was excited to get going again and it felt really comfortable, which is positive and a confidence booster ahead of the final.
"I'm looking forward to it. The stadium is amazing, the vibe is amazing, so good hopes for Sunday."
Scotland's Reekie, who signed off for the championships with a memorable victory at the London Diamond League, looked relieved at the end of her heat after crossing the line first in 2:00.28.
The 25-year-old found herself awkwardly positioned on the final lap but finished strong to reach her first World Championships final.
GB's men's 4x100m relay team, consisting of Jeremiah Azu, Adam Gemili, Jona Efoloko and Eugene Amo-Dadzie, qualified by placing third in their heat in 38.01secs.
The women's quartet of Asha Philip, Imani-Lara Lansiquot, Bianca Williams and Annie Tagoe also progressed by finishing a clear second to a Jamaican team brought home by five-time 100m champion Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce in 42.33secs.
There were dramatic conclusions in both the women's triple jump and javelin finals, where Yulimar Rojas and Haruka Kitaguchi clinched golds with their respective final-round attempts.
Venezuela's Rojas won a fourth successive triple jump world title by leaping 15.08m to deny Ukraine's Maryna Bekh-Romanchu, while Japan's Kitaguchi threw 66.73m to take the title from Colombian Flor Denis Ruiz Hurtado.